Organize the main ideas in the form of a simple, concrete plan.

Organize the main ideas in the form of a simple, concrete plan.

You need to think about how to arrange this material, in what sequence

The speaker is faced with a number of questions: what words to start the speech, how to continue the conversation, how to end the speech, how to gain the attention of listeners and keep it. Therefore, it is important to pay serious attention to work on the composition of the speech.

In the theory of oratory, the composition of a speech is understood as the construction of a speech, the ratio of its main parts and the relation of each part to the whole speech as a whole. To name this concept next to the word "composition" also use a word close in meaning "structure"…

The composition of the material in the speech, the location of all parts of the speech is determined by the speaker’s plan, the content of the speech. If the ratio of parts of speech is violated, the effectiveness of speech is reduced, and sometimes reduced to zero.

The structure of the oral presentation includes an introduction, main part, conclusions. Each part of the speech has its own characteristics that must be taken into account when preparing for a speech. The focus should be on the largest main part, the actual presentation, which contains evidence in favor of your position. Introduction and conclusions should not be too large. Proportionately, they are smaller than the main part, because the functions of the first – to introduce the topic, the second – to summarize what was said.

Introduction. The introduction emphasizes the relevance of the topic, its significance for this audience, formulates the purpose of the speech, summarizes the history of the issue. Before the speech is an important psychological task – to prepare students for the perception of this topic.

Thus, during the introduction, the speaker must perform two tasks: to establish contact with the audience, as well as to introduce them to the case.

There are 4 ways to form an effective entry:

method of reinforcement; drive method; way to encourage reflection; direct way.

The method of reinforcement is generally aimed at establishing contact with listeners. This can be achieved by warm treatment, jokes. Reinforcement is called security "favorability"… The following example of such reinforcement contains an important sign of good coordination: first there are words that evoke a smile, followed by an address and gratitude, and joy is expressed about the opportunity to address the speech. Attached: reference to the place where the speech is delivered, address to individuals, general compliment, personal memories.

Technique of using the drive. The occasion clearly highlights the situation or what is directly related to the issue under discussion, the reason is directly related to the content of the speech. A small event, comparison, personal experience, anecdote, unexpected questioning give the opportunity to connect the speech with them in the future.

Technique to encourage reflection. This method can be used at the beginning of the speech, especially for trained listeners. It consists of naming a problem or package of problems and asking the audience questions, which are then addressed in the main body.

This technique activates thinking and encourages the listener to cooperate. Openly asked questions or even a proposed point of view, which will then be refuted – all this excites the listener to the work of thoughts in which he follows the speaker.

Direct technique. This method involves a direct transition to the essence of the case. We waive any of the above entries. In this case, we briefly talk about the reason for the speech, quickly move from general to specific and begin the main part. This technique is rational, cold, straightforward and inherent in thousands of small business messages.

Main part. A well-thought-out introduction and a special conclusion do not guarantee the success of the speech. It happens that the speaker began his speech in an original way, interested the audience, but slowly their attention fades, and then disappears completely. The speaker has a task – not only to attract the attention of listeners, but also to keep it until the end of the speech. Therefore, the main part of the speech is the most responsible.

If there is no logic in the speech, the sequence of thought development, it is difficult to perceive the content of the speech, to follow the course of the speaker’s reasoning, to remember what he heard. In the main part of the speech it is important to follow the basic rule of composition – the logical sequence and harmony of the material.

First of all, give a description of the situation, describing the circumstances that will be the object of attention. The description should flow smoothly into the story. But the description is static, and the story is dynamic, moving. Then we reveal the essence of the problem with a system of logical arguments, operating on indisputable facts. At compare and contrast essay now to buy the same time it is necessary to increase the argumentation gradually, so that each subsequent opinion reinforces the previous one, and to keep the strongest arguments at the end – this will ensure the lasting interest of listeners, will maintain the audience’s constant attention.

When building the main part, do everything possible to make the plan and supporting data clear and interesting. Organize the main ideas in a simple, concrete plan. Discard anything that has nothing to do with your goal. Define unusual terms; use as many specific examples as possible; give, if necessary, the statements of authoritative persons; ask questions to emphasize the transition from one thought to another.

The task of the speaker at this stage is to skillfully arrange all these components in order to influence the audience in the desired way.

Conclusions. An important compositional part of any performance is the ending. Convincing and vividly remembered by listeners, leaves a good impression of the speech. On the contrary, a bad ending sometimes loses a good speech.

In the conclusions it is necessary to repeat the main idea for which the speech is proclaimed, to summarize the most important provisions, to summarize what has been said, to outline the topic of the next speech, to provoke the audience to debate, to appeal , and so on. For example, a university lecture may end with logical conclusions and a definition of the topic of the next lesson, a rally speech or sermon – an appeal, a court speech – an appeal to the court with a call for a fair decision, etc.

The last words of the speech need to be worked on especially carefully. The last words remain in the memory for a long time. If the first words attract the attention of the audience, the last are designed to enhance the effect of the speech.

Some speakers at the end of the speech begin to apologize to the audience for not having enough time to prepare the speech, so they did not perform well. This should not be done. It is bad if the speaker ends the speech with a joke that is not related to the topic of the speech. This ending distracts the audience from the main points of the speech.

The given three-part model of oratorical work is the most widespread variant of compositional structure, but not obligatory. In ancient times, speakers did not always adhere to this rigid structure. You can experiment, change parts of the work, start a speech, for example, from the climax or even from the conclusions. But this can only be used by an experienced speaker, it is risky for a beginner to do so. Needless to say, in any composition, a logical connection between the parts of the work is required.


Toman Rust. The art of speaking. – K., 1998. Dale Carnegie. Learn to speak in public and influence a wide range of people. – K., 2000. The culture of debate. – Kharkiv, 1988."History of world culture" LT Levchuk. – Kyiv: "Lybid" 1994 – Art. 168-192, only 310 st.S. I. Radzig "History of Ancient Greek literature" Moscow, st "High school" 1999 Gasparova, V. Borukhovich "Oratory of ancient Greece" Moscow, "Fiction" 1985"Ancient literature" Moscow, st "Education" 1986. History of eloquence. – Kyiv, 2000. Ukrainian and foreign culture. Textbook. – K., 1999.


Interaction of speaker and audience: essence and problems. Abstract

Interaction with the audience is the commonality of the psychological state of the speaker and his listeners, caused by common thoughts and empathy in the process of their joint intellectual work.

The common psychological state of the speaker and his listeners is determined by mutual interest and trust in each other. The presence of contact in the interaction with the listeners is perceived by the speaker as a positive factor that facilitates his work, because in terms of interaction, his personal traits are most fully revealed. In turn, the very fact of establishing contact gives the speaker intellectual and emotional satisfaction.

The experience of the best speakers proves that the conditions for establishing interaction are, as we have emphasized, the speaker’s knowledge of the subject of the conversation; taking into account the needs and moods of the audience; simple, lively speech of the speaker; constant visual contact with students, determining their reaction and making additional changes in both the content and the methodology of teaching the material; trying to see in each listener an interlocutor, a friend, not to rise above the audience; involvement of listeners from the first minutes in joint active discussion of issues.

The purpose of the speaker, the meaning of his work is to transform knowledge into beliefs. There is an illusion that for such a transformation it is enough to present certain information in a meaningful, complete, logical way and the goal is achieved. In order to ensure the success of the speech (to realize the purpose of the speech and ensure its interest), the speaker needs the information to be perceived, assimilated by the audience, moreover – would become a system, part of its spiritual values That determine the motives. And to achieve this, the speaker needs not only knowledge of the subject of the conversation, but also the ability to make the audience listen to the speaker throughout the speech, interacting with him.

It is important to know that in the interaction of the speaker and the audience there are subject-subject relations, which involve two-way activity, despite the fact that the speaker’s influence is dominant and seemingly unilaterally influential.

Assimilation of any information is impossible without the participation of the emotional-sensory apparatus. People mistakenly think that it is enough to prove the truth as a mathematical formula to accept it, or enough to believe in yourself for others to believe. It often goes wrong: the speaker says one thing and the listeners come to a different conclusion by listening to him.